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February 10, 2022

Multi-Jurisdictional Contractor Advisory Committee (CAC)/Subject Matter Expert Meeting

March 10, 2022

Topic: Sacroiliac Joint (SIJ) Interventions and Procedures

References for sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injections and procedures


  1. Buchanan P, Vodapally S, Lee DW, et al. Successful Diagnosis of Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction. J Pain Res. 2021;14:3135-3143. (Review/diagnostics)
  2. Cohen SP, Bicket MC, Kurihara C, et al. Fluoroscopically Guided vs Landmark-Guided Sacroiliac Joint Injections: A Randomized Controlled Study. Mayo Clin Proc. 2019;94(4):628-642. (RCT/diagnostics)
  3. Simopoulos TT, Manchikanti L, Singh V, et al. A systematic evaluation of prevalence and diagnostic accuracy of sacroiliac joint interventions. Pain Physician. 2012;15(3):E305-344. (SR/ Diagnostics/SIJI)
  4. Vining RD, Shannon ZK, Minkalis AL, Twist EJ. Current Evidence for Diagnosis of Common Conditions Causing Low Back Pain: Systematic Review and Standardized Terminology Recommendations. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2019;42(9):651-664. (Review/diagnotics)


  1. Wehling P, Evans C, Wehling J, Maixner W. Effectiveness of intra-articular therapies in osteoarthritis: a literature review. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2017;9(8):183-196. (SR/safety)
  2. Wernecke C, Braun HJ, Dragoo JL. The effect of intra-articular corticosteroids on articular cartilage: a systematic review. Orthop J Sports Med. 2015;3(5):2325967115581163. (SR/safety)


  1. NASS Evidence-Based Clinical Guidelines for Multidisciplinary Spine Care: Diagnosis & Treatment of Low Back Pain. 2020; website. Accessed 1-5, 2022. (Guidelines)
  2. Lorio M, Kube R, Araghi A. International Society for the Advancement of Spine Surgery Policy 2020 Update—Minimally Invasive Surgical Sacroiliac Joint Fusion (for Chronic Sacroiliac Joint Pain): Coverage Indications, Limitations, and Medical Necessity. Int J Spine Surg. 2020;14(6):860-895. (Guidelines)
  3. MacVicar J, Kreiner DS, Duszynski B, Kennedy DJ. Appropriate Use Criteria for Fluoroscopically Guided Diagnostic and Therapeutic Sacroiliac Interventions: Results from the Spine Intervention Society Convened Multispecialty Collaborative. Pain medicine. 2017;18(11):2081-2095. (Guidelines)
  4. Manchikanti L, Abdi S, Atluri S, et al. An update of comprehensive evidence-based guidelines for interventional techniques in chronic spinal pain. Part II: guidance and recommendations. Pain Physician. 2013;16(2 Suppl):S49-283. (Guidelines)
  5. American Society of Anesthesiologists. Statement on anesthetic care during interventional pain procedures for adults October 13, 2021 (original approval: October 22, 2005) website


  1. Kennedy DJ, Engel A, Kreiner DS, Nampiaparampil D, Duszynski B, MacVicar J. Fluoroscopically Guided Diagnostic and Therapeutic Intra-Articular Sacroiliac Joint Injections: A Systematic Review. Pain Med. 2015;16(8):1500-1518. (SR/SIJI)
  2. Hansen H, Manchikanti L, Simopoulos TT, et al. A systematic evaluation of the therapeutic effectiveness of sacroiliac joint interventions. Pain Physician. 2012;15(3):E247-278. (SR/SIJI)
  3. Visser LH, Woudenberg NP, de Bont J, et al. Treatment of the sacroiliac joint in patients with leg pain: a randomized-controlled trial. Eur Spine J. 2013;22(10):2310-2317. (RT/ SIJI vs conservative)
  4. Spiker WR, Lawrence BD, Raich AL, Skelly AC, Brodke DS. Surgical versus injection treatment for injection-confirmed chronic sacroiliac joint pain. Evid Based Spine Care J. 2012;3(4):41-53. (SR/SIJI vs. surgery)
  5. Cohen SP, Doshi TL, Kurihara C, et al. Waddell (Nonorganic) Signs and Their Association With Interventional Treatment Outcomes for Low Back Pain. Anesth Analg. 2021;132(3):639-651. (Prospective/SIJI/secondary outcomes)


  1. Chou R, Fu R, Dana T, Pappas M, Hart E, Mauer KM. Interventional Treatments for Acute and Chronic Pain: Systematic Review. 2021. (AHRQ/SR/RFA)
  2. Chen CH, Weng PW, Wu LC, Chiang YF, Chiang CJ. Radiofrequency neurotomy in chronic lumbar and sacroiliac joint pain: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019;98(26):e16230. (MA/RFA)
  3. Yang AJ, McCormick ZL, Zheng PZ, Schneider BJ. Radiofrequency ablation for posterior sacroiliac joint complex pain: a narrative review. PM.R. 2019;11(1): S105-S113.
  4. Mehta V, Poply K, Husband M, Anwar S, Langford R. The effects of radiofrequency neurotomy using a strip-lesioning device on patients with sacroiliac joint pain: results from a single-center, randomized, sham-controlled trial. Pain Physician. 2018;21(6):607-618. (RT/RFA)
  5. Salman OH, Gad GS, Mohamed AA, Rafae HH, Abdelfatah AM. Randomized, controlled blind study comparing sacroiliac intra-articular steroid injection to radiofrequency denervation for sacroiliac joint pain. Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia. 2016;32(2):219-225. (RCT/RFA)
  6. van Tilburg CW, Schuurmans FA, Stronks DL, Groeneweg JG, Huygen FJ. Randomized sham-controlled double-blind multicenter clinical trial to ascertain the effect of percutaneous radiofrequency treatment for sacroiliac joint pain: three-month results. The Clinical journal of pain. 2016;32(11):921. (RCT/RFA)
  7. Patel N, Gross A, Brown L, Gekht G. A randomized, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy of lateral branch neurotomy for chronic sacroiliac joint pain. Pain Med. 2012;13(3):383-398. (RCT/RFA)
  8. Cheng J, Cheng SL, Zimmerman N, Dalton JE, LaSalle G, Rosenquist R. A new radiofrequency ablation procedure to treat sacroiliac joint pain. Pain Physician. 2016;19(8):603-615. (obervational/RFA)
  9. Aydin SM, Gharibo CG, Mehnert M, Stitik TP. The role of radiofrequency ablation for sacroiliac joint pain: a meta-analysis. PM R. 2010;2(9):842-851. (MA/RFA)
  10. Yang AJ, Wagner G, Burnham T, McCormick ZL, Schneider BJ. Radiofrequency Ablation for Chronic Posterior Sacroiliac Joint Complex Pain: A Comprehensive Review. Pain Medicine. 2021;22(S1): S9–S13.


  1. Simopoulos TT, Manchikanti L, Gupta S, et al. Systematic Review of the Diagnostic Accuracy and Therapeutic Effectiveness of Sacroiliac Joint Interventions. Pain physician. 2015;18(5):E713-E756. (SR/ SIJI and RFA)
  2. Dutta K, Dey S, Bhattacharyya P, Agarwal S, Dev P. Comparison of Efficacy of Lateral Branch Pulsed Radiofrequency Denervation and Intraarticular Depot Methylprednisolone Injection for Sacroiliac Joint Pain. Pain Physician. 2018;21(5):489-496. (RCT/ SIJI vs RFA)


  1.  Patel N. Twelve-month follow-up of a randomized trial assessing cooled radiofrequency denervation as a treatment for sacroiliac region pain. Pain Practice. 2016;16(2):154-167. (RCT/RFA)
  2. Cánovas Martínez L, Orduña Valls J, Paramés Mosquera E, Lamelas Rodríguez L, Rojas Gil S, Domínguez García M. Sacroiliac joint pain: Prospective, randomised, experimental and comparative study of thermal radiofrequency with sacroiliac joint block. Revista espanola de anestesiologia y reanimacion. 2016;63(5):267-272. (RT/RFA)
  3. Kapural N, Nageeb F, Kapural M, Cata JP, Narouze S, Mekhail N. Cooled radiofrequency system for the treatment of chronic pain from sacroiliitis: the first case-series. Pain Practice. 2008;8(5):348-354.


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